Independent variables are also known as factor or prediction variable. Bem carnegie institute o technology the assumption is often made that attitudes and beliefs cause the behaviors with which they are associated. It is achieving goals by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. According to the ob model discussed in the text book. Boxall and macky 11 report that, while the dependent variable in hpws is complicated, there is even greater difficulty with the independent variable.
Krauth, in techniques in the behavioral and neural sciences, 2000. An independent variable is the variable that the researchers systematically manipulate in the experiment. Organisational behaviour with examples, discuss dependent and. Most studies of organizational performance define performance as a dependent variable and seek to identify variables that produce variations in performance. Organizational performance as a dependent variable stanford. Organizational culture measures variable symbol measure on employee. In organizational behavior, one example would be to measure. Researchers who study organizational performance in this way typically devote little attention to the complications of using such a formulation to characterize the causal structure of. The independent variables independent variables independent variable the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable. Job satisfaction the operational definition chosen for this study was vanous and. Organizational behavior as an applied field at present, the two sides of organizational behavior are moving at cross directions regarding the issue of basic versus applied research. Variables play a critical role in the psychological research process. There is an important difference between job satisfaction and the preceding four dependent variables. The dependent variables in organizational behavior relate to direct productivity of an employee.
Because of its ease of measurement, as well as the continued dependence of the field on attitudinal surveys, satisfaction measures have played some role in a very large proportion of organizational research. Customer satisfaction is heavily influenced by customer perceptions of the value of services they receive. The following paper looks at the dependent and independent variables in organization behaviour and why it is important for managers to understand these variables. The independent variables of importance when studying value and leadershiprelated research, will. Key ob dependent variables at university of southern. Organizational behavior, student value edition plus 2014. Independent variables are those factors that are directly related to the organization and determine its overall success. Example summary iba, organizational behavior 20152016. The statistical analyses of the study results show that all alternative hypotheses were supported and the null hypotheses were rejected.
The dependent variables in this study, namely workrelated values, locus of control and leadership behaviour have been discussed in chapters 3, 4 and 5. A mediator is a variable that fully or partially transmits the effects of one or more independent variables to one or more dependent. Crossroadsorganizational performance as a dependent variable. At the macro level, the legacy has been one of descriptive empirical research e. In previous organizational justice research, justice has commonly been treated as the independent variable, but recently there has been growing interest in examining justice also as a dependent. It is possible to have multiple independent variables or multiple dependent variables. Customer loyalty is a direct consequence of customer satisfaction. We will introduce important contingency variables that will improve the explanatory linkage between the independent and dependent variables in our ob model.
In research, an independent variable is the variable that is the input and the dependent variable is the outcome or perceived outcome. Pdf the study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the. Research variables dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables as part of an organizational structure are turnover, absenteeism, job satisfaction etc be aware that the values of a dependent and independent variable could change as part of an experiment during recording phase the main. Before we can begin to choose our statistical test, we must determine which is the independent and which is the dependent variable in our hypothesis. Dependent variables represent the output or outcome resulting from altering these inputs of the two, it is always the dependent variable whose variation is being studied, by altering inputs, also known. The concepts of change and stress are included in exhibit 17, acknowledging the dynamics of behavior and the fact that work stress is an individual, group, and organizational issue. Assignment ob dependent and independent variables behavior. Organizational climate as a dependent variable relationship with role stress, coping strategy and personal variables avinash kumar srivastav abstract models for predicting motives of organizational climate from personal, role stress and coping strategy variables have been developed in this paper by using stepwise multiple regression.
If, however, the independent variable is a qualitative factor, e. Contingency variables a variable that affects the direction or strength of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is called contingency variable. Independent and dependent variables emory university. Other recent research has also helped to reopen the question of the causal relation between attitudes or beliefs and behavior e. Organizational behavior as an outcomeoriented field. Fallowing these 10 variables comes in this category. Organizational performance as a dependent variable.
Every experiment has at least two types of variables. Again the behavior becomes the independent rather than the dependent variable of the relationship. Strictly speaking, job satisfaction is an attitude. Brand awareness is one of the independent variable might affect the consumer purchase behaviour. Establishing a functional relationship between the independent and the dependent variable is the primary focus of applied behavior analysis. The independent variables of importance when studying value and leadershiprelated research, will be discussed in this chapter. The hypothesis therefore, will explain whether there is any significant relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable. Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of. The dependent variables as part of an organizational structure are turnover, absenteeism, job satisfaction etc. Identification of variables affecting employee satisfaction.
Organizational tests of the threepath mediated effect. The dependent variables in this study, namely workrelated values, locus of. Profit and growth are stimulated directly and primarily by customer loyalty. Dependent variables are the key factors that you want to explain or predict and. Participating in varsity athletics was the independent variable in my friends. Researchers who study organizational performance in this way typically devote little attention to the complications of using such a formulation to. To sum up our definition, ob is concerned with the study of what people do in. The independent variables of research included dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior and the dependent variables included dimensions of organizational commitment.
The independent variable is the condition that you change in an experiment. Based on a literature study, 8 independent variables have been selected to explore the relationships between the dependent variables, namely the six work value dimensions of. An independent variable is measured, manipulated, or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon. Behaviors are much easier to observe and measure than are attitudes. The dependent variables contd job satisfaction a general attitude not a behavior toward ones job. For instance, in multivariable calculus, one often encounters functions of the form z f x, y \displaystyle zfx,y, where z is a dependent variable and x and y are independent variables. A engagement b apathy c despair d constraint e pessimism answer. The dependent variables contd job satisfaction a general attitude toward ones job, the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. Job satisfaction job satisfaction has probably attracted more research than any other dependent variable in the field.
Types of study variables free download as powerpoint presentation. The independent variables of importance when studying value and leadership. Independent variables in ob the independent variable in ob are those factors that shape employee behaviors and attitudes i. It is called independent because its value does not depend on and is not affected by the state of any other variable in the experiment. In organizational behavior research, the most popular dependent variables are productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. If the independent variable is a quantitative factor, given, e. In this chapter the definition of organizational behavior will be discussed. Dependent and independent variables are variables in mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences. The effect of organizational citizenship behavior on. Accurate and reliable description and observation of both the independent and dependent variables are necessary to achieve this goal. A dependent variable is the key factor that you want to explain or predict, and that is. Some employees may also find the programs unfair or feel threatened by it, particularly when job security is low. The fact about the independent variable is that the participants of the experiment do not change it.
Both the independent variable and dependent variable are examined in an experiment using the scientific method, so its important to know what they are and how to use them. Organisational behaviour with examples, discuss dependent. The contingency theory explains that there are specific situational factors that can affect the direct relationships between independent and dependent variables in the study of organizational. The paper also explores how managers may benefit from understanding such variables. Organization development organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. Sometimes you may hear this variable called the controlled variable because it is the one that is changed. Oct 09, 2010 the dependent variables dependent variable a response that is affected by an independent variable what organizational behavior researchers try to understand. Participating in varsity athletics was the indepen. Effects of organizational culture on organizational. The dependent variables dependent variable a response that is affected by an independent variable what organizational behavior researchers try to understand. Independent variables are defined as a characteristic that we ones who are conducting the experiment manipulate to identify a particular factor. Specific situational factors that can affect the direct relationships between independent and dependent variables in the study of organizational behavior.
Define dependent variables in organisational behaviour. For example, if we have two independent variables, the two variables will interact with each other and produce different results than expected. Identify the independent and dependent variables, and explain how they are related to one another. Weiek, 1966, and it is the purpose of this article to present an analysis. Here are the definitions for independent and dependent variables, examples of each variable, and the explanation for how to graph them. In analyzing organizational behavior, variables are divided into two categories. Researchers who study organizational performance in this way typically devote little attention to the complications of using such a formulation to characterize the causal structure of performance phenomena. Be aware that the values of a dependent and independent variable could change as part of an experiment during recording phase. The dependent and independent variables in organization. Some key independent variables in positive ob research are. The human resource management performance link staff. Pdf impact of organizational culture on organizational.
By systematically varying some variables and measuring the effects on other variables, researchers can determine if changes to one thing result in changes in something else. Pdf organizational citizenship behavior ocb variable on. May be qualitative such as student gender, type of community organization, or type of college or quantitative e. Organizational citizenship behavior ocb variable on employees. Primarily, however, he focused on the conceptual grouping of the independent variables that explained these various types of police behavior e. Our dependent variable is always the phenomenon or behavior that we want to explain or predict. The methodology for conducting the study was the use of two quantitative instruments aimed at determining the relative contribution that the independent variables taskoriented or relationsoriented leadership behaviors have on the dependent variables the different dimensions of organizational climate. The dependent variables contd productivity a performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. The independent variables independent variables can be independent variable the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable.
The independent variable and dependent variable marketing. May 24, 2011 the dependent variables contd job satisfaction a general attitude toward ones job, the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. Hence, if the number of independent variables is large, it gets difficult to reach the conclusion. Identification of variables affecting employee satisfaction and their impact on the organization. Independent variable an overview sciencedirect topics. Identifying variables, research purposes and hypotheses identifying variables for a research purpose begins as a set of questions and responses in your mind. A positive organizational scholarships study how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential. The dependent variables dependent variable a response that is affected by an independent variable what organizational behavior.413 1572 1061 101 196 761 1312 78 433 593 1175 51 1038 53 8 1039 743 123 103 1166 1396 896 122 810 248 1112 114 1109 1084 400 811 196 588 645